Questions How does JavaScript .prototype work?

I'm not that into dynamic programming languages, but I've written my fair share of JavaScript code. I never really got my head around this prototype-based programming, does any one know how this works?

var obj = new Object(); // not a functional object
obj.prototype.test = function() { alert('Hello?'); }; // this is wrong!

function MyObject() {} // a first class functional object
MyObject.prototype.test = function() { alert('OK'); } // OK

I remember a lot discussion I had with people a while back (I'm not exactly sure what I'm doing) but as I understand it, there's no concept of a class. It's just an object, and instances of those objects are clones of the original, right?

But what is the exact purpose of this .prototype property in JavaScript? How does it relate to instantiating objects?


Edit

These slides really helped a lot to understand this topic.

Comments :

John Resig has a few slides on function prototypes that were helpful to me when looking into the subject (you can also make changes to the code and see what happens...) http://ejohn.org/apps/learn/#64

Chris replied

Great reference material, for purposes of keeping this question informative perhaps place some of the comments from John's site on your answer in case his site is changes in a way that your link is no longer available. Either way +1, helped me.

+1 for your link to John Resig's JavaScript Ninja slide #64. Starting from there was really helpful, and I feel like I understand prototypes correctly.

Anshul replied

Do we really need a functional object for applying prototype? if yes than why ?

Naor replied

This might help you: webdeveasy.com/javascript-prototype


19 Answers :
Christoph answered

Every JavaScript object has an internal property called [[Prototype]]. If you look up a property via obj.propName or obj['propName'] and the object does not have such a property - which can be checked via obj.hasOwnProperty('propName') - the runtime looks up the property in the object referenced by [[Prototype]] instead. If the prototype-object also doesn't have such a property, its prototype is checked in turn, thus walking the original object's prototype-chain until a match is found or its end is reached.

Some JavaScript implementations allow direct access to the [[Prototype]] property, eg via a non-standard property named __proto__. In general, it's only possible to set an object's prototype during object creation: If you create a new object via new Func(), the object's [[Prototype]] property will be set to the object referenced by Func.prototype.

This allows to simulate classes in JavaScript, although JavaScript's inheritance system is - as we have seen - prototypical, and not class-based:

Just think of constructor functions as classes and the properties of the prototype (ie of the object referenced by the constructor function's prototype property) as shared members, ie members which are the same for each instance. In class-based systems, methods are implemented the same way for each instance, so methods are normally added to the prototype, whereas an object's fields are instance-specific and therefore added to the object itself during construction.

John Leidegren replied
So, I'm I doing something wrong by defining new properties on the prototype property in my short snippet?;
John Leidegren replied
I think this is what it means to have function objects as first-class citizens.;
John Leidegren replied
I hate non standard things, especially in programming languages, why is there even a proto when it's clearly not needed?;
sova replied
+1 for prototypical;
Christoph replied
note that the use of [[Prototype]] is deliberate - ECMA-262 encloses names of internal properties with double square brackets;
Tushar Gupta answered

In a language implementing classical inheritance like Java, C# or C++ you start by creating a class--a blueprint for your objects--and then you can create new objects from that class or you can extend the class, defining a new class that augments the original class.

In JavaScript you first create an object (there is no concept of class), then you can augment your own object or create new objects from it. It's not difficult, but a little foreign and hard to metabolize for somebody used to the classical way.

Example:

//Define a functional object to hold persons in JavaScript
var Person = function(name) {
  this.name = name;
};

//Add dynamically to the already defined object a new getter
Person.prototype.getName = function() {
  return this.name;
};

//Create a new object of type Person
var john = new Person("John");

//Try the getter
alert(john.getName());

//If now I modify person, also John gets the updates
Person.prototype.sayMyName = function() {
  alert('Hello, my name is ' + this.getName());
};

//Call the new method on john
john.sayMyName();

Until now I've been extending the base object, now I create another object and then inheriting from Person.

//Create a new object of type Customer by defining its constructor. It's not 
//related to Person for now.
var Customer = function(name) {
    this.name = name;
};

//Now I link the objects and to do so, we link the prototype of Customer to 
//a new instance of Person. The prototype is the base that will be used to 
//construct all new instances and also, will modify dynamically all already 
//constructed objects because in JavaScript objects retain a pointer to the 
//prototype
Customer.prototype = new Person();     

//Now I can call the methods of Person on the Customer, let's try, first 
//I need to create a Customer.
var myCustomer = new Customer('Dream Inc.');
myCustomer.sayMyName();

//If I add new methods to Person, they will be added to Customer, but if I
//add new methods to Customer they won't be added to Person. Example:
Customer.prototype.setAmountDue = function(amountDue) {
    this.amountDue = amountDue;
};
Customer.prototype.getAmountDue = function() {
    return this.amountDue;
};

//Let's try:       
myCustomer.setAmountDue(2000);
alert(myCustomer.getAmountDue());

var Person = function (name) {
    this.name = name;
};
Person.prototype.getName = function () {
    return this.name;
};
var john = new Person("John");
alert(john.getName());
Person.prototype.sayMyName = function () {
    alert('Hello, my name is ' + this.getName());
};
john.sayMyName();
var Customer = function (name) {
    this.name = name;
};
Customer.prototype = new Person();

var myCustomer = new Customer('Dream Inc.');
myCustomer.sayMyName();
Customer.prototype.setAmountDue = function (amountDue) {
    this.amountDue = amountDue;
};
Customer.prototype.getAmountDue = function () {
    return this.amountDue;
};
myCustomer.setAmountDue(2000);
alert(myCustomer.getAmountDue());

While as said I can't call setAmountDue(), getAmountDue() on a Person.

//The following statement generates an error.
john.setAmountDue(1000);
stivlo replied
I think the answers on stackoverflow are not only interesting to the original poster, but also to a big community of other people lurking or coming from searches. And I've been one of them and I had benefit from old posts. I think I could contribute to the other answers adding some code examples. About your question: if you leave out the new, it doesn't work. when I call myCustomer.sayMyName() it returns "myCustomer.sayMyName is not a function". The easiest way is experiment with firebug and see what happens.;
stivlo replied
As far as I understand var Person = function (name) {...}; is defining a constructor function capable of building Person Objects. So there is no Object yet, only the anonymous constructor function is assigned to Person. This is a very good explanation: helephant.com/2008/08/how-javascript-objects-work;
goofyguy763 replied
WARNING: This answer neglects the fact that the parent class constructor is not called on a per instance basis. The only reason it works is because he did the exact same thing (setting the name) in both the child and parent constructor. For a more in depth explanation on common mistakes made when attempting inheritance in JavaScript (and a final solution), please see: this stack overflow post;
James Wilkins replied
I notice that this answer also doesn't mention that by using "new Person()" as the prototype, you are actually setting the "name" instance property of "Person" to be a static property of "Customer" (so all Customer instances will have the same property). While it's a good basic example, DON'T DO THAT. :) Create a new anonymous function to act as a "bridge" by setting it's prototype to "Person.prototype", then create an instance from it and set "Customer.prototype" to that anonymous instance instead.;
Rafael Eyng replied
About the Customer.prototype = new Person(); line, MDN shows an example using Customer.prototype = Object.create(Person.prototype), and states that 'A common error here is to use "new Person()"'. source;
Mehran Hatami answered

I play a role as a JavaScript teacher and the prototype concept has always been a controversial topic to cover when I teach. It took me a while to come up with a good method to clarify the concept, and now in this text I'm gonna be trying to explain How does JavaScript .prototype work.


This is a very simple prototype based object model that would be considered as a sample during the explanation, with no comment yet:

function Person(name){
    this.name = name;
}
Person.prototype.getName = function(){
    console.log(this.name);
}
var person = new Person("George");

There are some crucial points that we have to consider before going through the prototype concept.

1- How JavaScript functions actually work:

To take the first step we have to figure out, how JavaScript functions actually work , as a class like function using this keyword in it or just as a regular function with its arguments, what it does and what it returns.

Let's say we want to create a Person object model. but in this step I'm gonna be trying to do the same exact thing without using prototype and new keyword.

So in this step functions, objects and this keyword, are all we have.

The first question would be how this keyword could be useful without using new keyword.

So to answer that let's say we have an empty object, and two functions like:

var person = {};
function Person(name){  this.name = name;  }

function getName(){
    console.log(this.name);
}

and now without using new keyword how we could use these functions. So JavaScript has 3 different ways to do that:

a. first way is just to call the function as a regular function:

Person("George");
getName();//would print the "George" in the console

in this case, this would be the current context object, which is usually is the global window object in the browser or GLOBAL in Node.js. It means we would have, window.name in browser or GLOBAL.name in Node.js, with "George" as its value.

b. We can attach them to an object, as its properties

-The easiest way to do this is modifying the empty person object, like:

person.Person = Person;
person.getName = getName;

this way we can call them like:

person.Person("George");
person.getName();// -->"George"

and now the person object is like:

Object {Person: function, getName: function, name: "George"}

-The other way to attach a property to an object is using the prototype of that object that can be find in any JavaScript object with the name of __proto__, and I have tried to explain it a bit on the summary part. So we could get the similar result by doing:

person.__proto__.Person = Person;
person.__proto__.getName = getName;

But this way what we actually are doing is modifying the Object.prototype, because whenever we create a JavaScript object using literals ({ ... }), it gets created based on Object.prototype, which means it gets attached to the newly created object as an attribute named __proto__ , so if we change it, as we have done on our previous code snippet, all the JavaScript objects would get changed, not a good practice. So what could be the better practice now:

person.__proto__ = {
    Person: Person,
    getName: getName
};

and now other objects are in peace, but it still doesn't seem to be a good practice. So we have still one more solutions, but to use this solution we should get back to that line of code where person object got created (var person = {};) then change it like:

var propertiesObject = {
    Person: Person,
    getName: getName
};
var person = Object.create(propertiesObject);

what it does is creating a new JavaScript Object and attach the propertiesObject to the __proto__ attribute. So to make sure you can do:

console.log(person.__proto__===propertiesObject); //true

But the tricky point here is you have access to all the properties defined in __proto__ on the first level of the person object(read the summary part for more detail).


as you see using any of these two way this would exactly point to the person object.

c. JavaScript has another way to provide the function with this, which is using call or apply to invoke the function.

The apply() method calls a function with a given this value and arguments provided as an array (or an array-like object).

and

The call() method calls a function with a given this value and arguments provided individually.

this way which is my favorite, we can easily call our functions like:

Person.call(person, "George");

or

//apply is more useful when params count is not fixed
Person.apply(person, ["George"]);

getName.call(person);   
getName.apply(person);

these 3 methods are the important initial steps to figure out the .prototype functionality.


2- How does the new keyword works?

this is the second step to understand the .prototype functionality.this is what I use to simulate the process:

function Person(name){  this.name = name;  }
my_person_prototype = { getName: function(){ console.log(this.name); } };

in this part I'm gonna be trying to take all the steps which JavaScript takes, without using the new keyword and prototype, when you use new keyword. so when we do new Person("George"), Person function serves as a constructor, These are what JavaScript does, one by one:

a. first of all it makes an empty object, basically an empty hash like:

var newObject = {};

b. the next step that JavaScript takes is to attach the all prototype objects to the newly created object

we have my_person_prototype here similar to the prototype object.

for(var key in my_person_prototype){
    newObject[key] = my_person_prototype[key];
}

It is not the way that JavaScript actually attaches the properties that are defined in the prototype. The actual way is related to the prototype chain concept.


a. & b. Instead of these two steps you can have the exact same result by doing:

var newObject = Object.create(my_person_prototype);
//here you can check out the __proto__ attribute
console.log(newObject.__proto__ === my_person_prototype); //true
//and also check if you have access to your desired properties
console.log(typeof newObject.getName);//"function"

now we can call the getName function in our my_person_prototype:

newObject.getName();

c. then it gives that object to the constructor,

we can do this with our sample like:

Person.call(newObject, "George");

or

Person.apply(newObject, ["George"]);

then the constructor can do whatever it wants, because this inside of that constructor is the object that was just created.

now the end result before simulating the other steps: Object {name: "George"}


Summary:

Basically, when you use the new keyword on a function, you are calling on that and that function serves as a constructor, so when you say:

new FunctionName()

JavaScript internally makes an object, an empty hash and then it gives that object to the constructor, then the constructor can do whatever it wants, because this inside of that constructor is the object that was just created and then it gives you that object of course if you haven't used the return statement in your function or if you've put a return undefined; at the end of your function body.

So when JavaScript goes to look up a property on an object, the first thing it does, is it looks it up on that object. And then there is a secret property [[prototype]] which we usually have it like __proto__ and that property is what JavaScript looks at next. And when it looks through the __proto__, as far as it is again another JavaScript object, it has its own __proto__ attribute, it goes up and up until it gets to the point where the next __proto__ is null. The point is the only object in JavaScript that its __proto__ attribute is null is Object.prototype object:

console.log(Object.prototype.__proto__===null);//true

and that's how inheritance works in JavaScript.

The prototype chain

In other words, when you have a prototype property on a function and you call a new on that, after JavaScript finishes looking at that newly created object for properties, it will go look at the function's .prototype and also it is possible that this object has its own internal prototype. and so on.

Bergi replied
a) Please don't explain prototypes by copying properties b) Setting the internal [[prototype]] happens before the constructor function is applied on the instance, please change that order c) jQuery is totally offtopic in this question;
Mehran Hatami replied
@Bergi: thanks for pointing out, I'd be appreciated if you let me know if that's ok now.;
P.M replied
Can you please make it simple? You are right on all points, but students who read this explanation may be really confused for the first time. pick up any simpler example, and let the code explain itself or add a bunch of comments to clarify what you mean.;
Mehran Hatami replied
@P.M: Thanks for your feedback. I've tried to make it as simple as possible but I think you are right it has still some vague points. So I will try to modify it and also be more descriptive. :);
sargas replied
+1 for the illustration at the end of your "book" :);

prototype allows you to make classes. if you do not use prototype then it becomes a static.

Here is a short example.

var obj = new Object();
obj.test = function() { alert('Hello?'); };

In the above case, you have static funcation call test. This function can be accessed only by obj.test where you can imagine obj to be a class.

where as in the below code

function obj()
{
}

obj.prototype.test = function() { alert('Hello?'); };
var obj2 = new obj();
obj2.test();

The obj has become a class which can now be instantiated. Multiple instances of obj can exist and they all have the test function.

The above is my understanding. I am making it a community wiki, so people can correct me if I am wrong.

Christoph replied
-1: prototype is a property of constructor functions, not instances, ie your code is wrong! Perhaps you meant the non-standard property __proto__ of objects, but that's a whole different beast...;
Ramesh replied
@Christoph - Thanks for pointing it out. I have updated the sample code.;
John Leidegren replied
This a sort of good answer, but there's more to it.;
James replied
There's so much more to it... Plus JavaScript is not a class-based language - it deals with inheritance via prototypes, you need to cover the differences in more detail!;
Armin Cifuentes replied
I think this answer is a little misguiding.;
lcn answered

After reading this thread, I feel confused with JavaScript Prototype Chain, then I found these charts

http://iwiki.readthedocs.org/en/latest/javascript/js_core.html#inheritance *[[protytype]]* and <code>prototype</code> property of function objects

it's a clear chart to show JavaScript Inheritance by Prototype Chain

and

http://www.javascriptbank.com/javascript/article/JavaScript_Classical_Inheritance/

this one contains a example with code and several nice diagrams.

prototype chain ultimately falls back to Object.prototype.

prototype chain can be technically extended as long as you want, each time by setting the prototype of the subclass equal to an object of the parent class.

Hope it's also helpful for you to understand JavaScript Prototype Chain.

Nicktar replied
It would be great if you could provide a short abstract of the contents of the links so this answer is still usefull when the links are dead.;
rockXrock replied
@Nicktar, Thanks for your suggestion, I have added simple description by these links.;
Nuno_147 replied
thats a clear chart ? :);
Mark Robson replied
A diagram speaks a thousand words. This is so useful :);
CodyBugstein replied
Can you explain what [[Prototype]] means?;

0) Two different things can be called "prototype":

  • the prototype property, as in obj.prototype

  • the prototype internal property, denoted as [[Prototype]] in ES5.

    It can be retrieved via the ES5 Object.getPrototypeOf().

    Firefox makes it accessible through the __proto__ property as an extension. ES6 now mentions some optional requirements for __proto__.


1) Those concepts exist to answer the question:

When I do obj.property, where does JS look for .property?

Intuitively, classical inheritance should affect property lookup.


2)

  • __proto__ is used for the dot . property lookup as in obj.property.
  • .prototype is not used for lookup directly, only indirectly as it determines __proto__ at object creation with new.

Lookup order is:

  • obj properties added with obj.p = ... or Object.defineProperty(obj, ...)
  • properties of obj.__proto__
  • properties of obj.__proto__.__proto__, and so on
  • if some __proto__ is null, return undefined.

This is the so-called prototype chain.

You can avoid . lookup with obj.hasOwnProperty('key') and Object.getOwnPropertyNames(f)


3) There are two main ways to set obj.__proto__:

  • new:

    var F = function() {}
    var f = new F()
    

    then new has set:

    f.__proto__ === F.prototype
    

    This is where .prototype gets used.

  • Object.create:

     f = Object.create(proto)
    

    sets:

    f.__proto__ === proto
    

4) The code:

var F = function() {}
var f = new F()

Corresponds to the following diagram:

(Function)       (  F  )                                      (f)
 |  ^             | | ^                                        |
 |  |             | | |                                        |
 |  |             | | +-------------------------+              |
 |  |constructor  | |                           |              |
 |  |             | +--------------+            |              |
 |  |             |                |            |              |
 |  |             |                |            |              |
 |[[Prototype]]   |[[Prototype]]   |prototype   |constructor   |[[Prototype]]
 |  |             |                |            |              |
 |  |             |                |            |              |
 |  |             |                | +----------+              |
 |  |             |                | |                         |
 |  |             |                | | +-----------------------+
 |  |             |                | | |
 v  |             v                v | v
(Function.prototype)              (F.prototype)
 |                                 |
 |                                 |
 |[[Prototype]]                    |[[Prototype]]
 |                                 |
 |                                 |
 | +-------------------------------+
 | |
 v v
(Object.prototype)
 | | ^
 | | |
 | | +---------------------------+
 | |                             |
 | +--------------+              |
 |                |              |
 |                |              |
 |[[Prototype]]   |constructor   |prototype
 |                |              |
 |                |              |
 |                | -------------+
 |                | |
 v                v |
(null)           (Object)

This diagram shows many language predefined object nodes: null, Object, Object.prototype, Function and Function.prototype. Our 2 lines of code only created f, F and F.prototype.


5) .constructor normally comes from F.prototype through the . lookup:

f.constructor === F
!f.hasOwnProperty('constructor')
Object.getPrototypeOf(f) === F.prototype
F.prototype.hasOwnProperty('constructor')
F.prototype.constructor === f.constructor

When we write f.constructor, JavaScript does the . lookup as:

  • f does not have .constructor
  • f.__proto__ === F.prototype has .constructor === F, so take it

The result f.constructor == F is intuitively correct, since F is used to construct f, e.g. set fields, much like in classic OOP languages.


6) If you modify prototype, you add new properties to all objects that have it as [[Prototype]] because of the . lookup, even if they were created before changing the prototype.

f = new F()
F.prototype.a = 1
f.a === 1

You could also set prototype to any object:

f = new F()
F.prototype = {a:1}
f.a === 1

But that wouldn't be cool because then:

f.constructor === Object

and not F as conventional. This happens because on the . lookup for constructor:

  • f does not have .constructor
  • f.__proto__ === {a:1} is a new Object and does not have .constructor either
  • f.__proto__.__proto__ is Object.prototype, which has .constructor === Object. So JavaScript takes it.

7) Classical inheritance syntax can be achieved by manipulating prototypes chains.

ES6 adds the class and extends keywords, which are simply syntax sugar for previously possible prototype manipulation madness.

class C {
    constructor(i) {
        this.i = i
    }
    inc() {
        return this.i + 1
    }
}

class D extends C {
    constructor(i) {
        super(i)
    }
    inc2() {
        return this.i + 2
    }
}
// Inheritance syntax works as expected.
(new C(1)).inc() === 2
(new D(1)).inc() === 2
(new D(1)).inc2() === 3
// "Classes" are just function objects.
C.constructor === Function
C.__proto__ === Function.prototype
D.constructor === Function
// D is a function "indirectly" through the chain.
D.__proto__ === C
D.__proto__.__proto__ === Function.prototype
// "extends" sets up the prototype chain so that base class
// lookups will work as expected
var d = new D(1)
d.__proto__ === D.prototype
D.prototype.__proto__ === C.prototype
// This is what `d.inc` actually does.
d.__proto__.__proto__.inc === C.prototype.inc
// Class variables
// No ES6 syntax sugar apparently:
// http://stackoverflow.com/questions/22528967/es6-class-variable-alternatives
C.c = 1
C.c === 1
// Because `D.__proto__ === C`.
D.c === 1
// Nothing makes this work.
d.c === undefined

Simplified diagram without all predefined objects:

      __proto__
(C)<---------------(D)         (d)
| |                |           |
| |                |           |
| |prototype       |prototype  |__proto__
| |                |           |
| |                |           |
| |                | +---------+
| |                | |
| |                | |
| |                v v
|__proto__        (D.prototype)
| |                |
| |                |
| |                |__proto__
| |                |
| |                |
| | +--------------+
| | |
| | |
| v v
| (C.prototype)--->(inc)
|
v
Function.prototype
tomasb replied
I don't know where you got this but this is the most clear answer!;
@tomasb thanks! "I don't know where you got this": after I've seen a few of those dynamic languages, I noticed what matters the most about their class system is how the . lookup works ( and how many copies of the data are made). So I set out to understand that point. The rest is Google + blog posts + a Js interpreter at hand. :);
Nir Smadar replied
This answer shows true and deep understanding of that concept. Good job!;
nguyenngoc101 replied
I still don't get the point why g.constructor === Object because you said that "4) When you do f = new F, new also sets f.constructor = F". Could you explain to me more? Anyway this is the best answer I'm looking for. Thank you so much!;
nguyenngoc101 replied
@Now it's all clear, I voted for your answer. Thank you for helping me.;
sam answered

Every object has an internal property, [[Prototype]], linking it to another object:

object [[Prototype]] -> anotherObject

Some environments expose that property as __proto__:

anObject.__proto__ === anotherObject

You create the [[Prototype]] link when creating an object:

var object = Object.create(anotherObject)
// imagine:
// object.__proto__ = anotherObject

// or (ES6 only):
var object = { __proto__: anotherObject };

In traditional javascript, the linked object is the prototype property of a function:

object [[Prototype]] -> aFunction.prototype

and you create the [[Prototype]] link with new:

var object = new aFunction;
// imagine:
// object.__proto__ = aFunction.prototype;

So these statements are equivalent:

var object = Object.create(Object.prototype);
var object = new Object;
// object.__proto__ === Object.prototype

Note that the link target (Object.prototype) appears only in Object.create.

Remember:

  • Every object has a link, [[Prototype]], sometimes exposed as __proto__.
  • Every function has a prototype property.
  • Objects created with new are linked to the prototype property of their constructor.
  • If a function is never used as a constructor, its prototype property will go unused.
Jakob Sternberg replied
+1 for highlighting Object.create();
Palec replied
Revision 5 removed some useful info, including info on Object.create(). See revision 4.;
sam replied
@Palec what should I add back?;
Palec replied
IMO at least the link to Object.create() docs, @sam. Links to __proto__ and Object.prototype would be nice enhancements. And I liked your examples of how prototypes work with constructors and Object.create(), but they were probably the long and less relevant part you wanted to get rid of.;
blackHawk replied
from the all discussion what i get(came from classical inheritance) if i create constructor function and try to create instance of it using new operator i will only get methods and properties that was attach to proto object, therefore its necessary to attach all the method and properties to proto object if we want to inherit, m i right?;
Georg Schölly answered

Javascript doesn't have inheritance in the usual sense, but it has the prototype chain.

prototype chain

If a member of an object can't be found in the object it looks for it in the prototype chain. The chain consists of other objects. The prototype of a given instance can be accessed with the __proto__ variable. Every object has one, as there is no difference between classes and instances in javascript.

The advantage of adding a function / variable to the prototype is that it has to be in the memory only once, not for every instance.

It's also useful for inheritance, because the prototype chain can consist of many other objects.

some replied
FF and Chrome supports proto, but not IE nor Opera.;
Hamish Grubijan replied
Georg, please clarify for a noob - "there is no difference between classes and instances in javascript." - could you elaborate? How does this work?;
blackHawk replied
from the all discussion what i get(came from classical inheritance) if i create constructor function and try to create instance of it using new operator i will only get methods and properties that was attach to proto object, therefore its necessary to attach all the method and properties to proto object if we want to inherit, m i right?;
Arup Hore answered

This article is long. But I am sure it will clear most of your queries regarding the "prototypical" nature of JavaScript Inheritance. And even more. Please read the complete article.

JavaScript basically has two kinds of data types

  • Non objects
  • Objects

Non objects

Following are the Non object data types

  • string
  • number (including NaN and Infinity)
  • boolean values(true,false)
  • undefined

These data types return following when you use the typeof operator

typeof "string literal" (or a variable containing string literal) === 'string'

typeof 5 (or any numeric literal or a variable containing numeric literal or NaN or Infynity) === 'number'

typeof true (or false or a variable containing true or false) === 'boolean'

typeof undefined (or an undefined variable or a variable containing undefined) === 'undefined'

The string,number and boolean data types can be represented both as Objects and Non objects.When they are represented as objects their typeof is always === 'object'. We shall come back to this once we understand the object data types.

Objects

The object datatypes can be further divided into two types

  1. Function type objects
  2. Non Function type objects

The Function type objects are the ones that return the string 'function' with typeof operator. All the user defined functions and all the JavaScript built in objects that can create new objects by using new operator fall into this category. For eg.

  • Object
  • String
  • Number
  • Boolean
  • Array
  • Typed Arrays
  • RegExp
  • Function
  • All the other built in objects that can create new objects by using new operator
  • function UserDefinedFunction(){ /*user defined code */ }

So, typeof(Object) === typeof(String) === typeof(Number) === typeof(Boolean) === typeof(Array) === typeof(RegExp) === typeof(Function) === typeof(UserDefinedFunction) === 'function'

All the Function type objects are actually instances of the built in JavaScript object Function (including the Function object i.e it is recursively defined). It is as if the these objects have been defined in the following way

var Object= new Function ([native code for object Object])
var String= new Function ([native code for object String])
var Number= new Function ([native code for object Number])
var Boolean= new Function ([native code for object Boolean])
var Array= new Function ([native code for object Array])
var RegExp= new Function ([native code for object RegExp])
var Function= new Function ([native code  for object Function])
var UserDefinedFunction= new Function ("user defined code")

As mentioned, the Function type objects can further create new objects using the new operator. For e.g an object of type Object, String, Number, Boolean, Array, RegExp Or UserDefinedFunction can be created by using

var a=new Object() or var a=Object() or var a={} //Create object of type Object
var a=new String() //Create object of type String
var a=new Number() //Create object of type Number
var a=new Boolean() //Create object of type Boolean
var a=new Array() or var a=Array() or var a=[]  //Create object of type Array
var a=new RegExp() or var a=RegExp() //Create object of type RegExp
var a=new UserDefinedFunction() 

The objects thus created are all Non Function type objects and return their typeof==='object'. In all these cases the object "a" cannot further create objects using operator new. So the following is wrong

var b=new a() //error. a is not typeof==='function'

The built in object Math is typeof==='object'. Hence a new object of type Math cannot be created by new operator.

var b=new Math() //error. Math is not typeof==='function'

Also notice that Object,Array and RegExp functions can create a new object without even using operator new. However the follwing ones don't.

var a=String() // Create a new Non Object string. returns a typeof==='string' 
var a=Number() // Create a new Non Object Number. returns a typeof==='number'
var a=Boolean() //Create a new Non Object Boolean. returns a typeof==='boolean'

The user defined functions are special case.

var a=UserDefinedFunction() //may or may not create an object of type UserDefinedFunction() based on how it is defined.

Since the Function type objects can create new objects they are also called Constructors.

Every Constructor/Function (whether built in or user defined) when defined automatically has a property called "prototype" whose value by default is set as an object. This object itself has a property called "constructor" which by default references back the Constructor/Function .

For example when we define a function

function UserDefinedFunction()
{
}

following automatically happens

UserDefinedFunction.prototype={constructor:UserDefinedFunction}

This "prototype" property is only present in the Function type objects (and never in Non Function type objects).

This is because when a new object is created (using new operator)it inherits all properties and methods from Constructor function's current prototype object i.e. an internal reference is created in the newly created object that references the object referenced by Constructor function's current prototype object.

This "internal reference" that is created in the object for referencing inherited properties is known as the object's prototype (which references the object referenced by Constructor's "prototype" property but is different from it). For any object (Function or Non Function) this can be retrieved using Object.getPrototypeOf() method. Using this method one can trace the prototype chain of an object.

Also, every object that is created (Function type or Non Function type) has a "constructor" property which is inherited from the object referenced by prototype property of the Constructor function. By default this "constructor" property references the Constructor function that created it (if the Constructor Function's default "prototype" is not changed).

For all Function type objects the constructor function is always function Function(){}

For Non Function type objects (e.g Javascript Built in Math object) the constructor function is the function that created it. For Math object it is function Object(){}.

All the concept explained above can be a little daunting to understand without any supporting code. Please go through the following code line by line to understand the concept. Try to execute it to have a better understanding.

function UserDefinedFunction()
{ 

} 

/* creating the above function automatically does the following as mentioned earlier

UserDefinedFunction.prototype={constructor:UserDefinedFunction}

*/


var newObj_1=new UserDefinedFunction()

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_1)===UserDefinedFunction.prototype)  //Displays true

alert(newObj_1.constructor) //Displays function UserDefinedFunction

//Create a new property in UserDefinedFunction.prototype object

UserDefinedFunction.prototype.TestProperty="test"

alert(newObj_1.TestProperty) //Displays "test"

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_1).TestProperty)// Displays "test"

//Create a new Object

var objA = {
        property1 : "Property1",
        constructor:Array

}


//assign a new object to UserDefinedFunction.prototype
UserDefinedFunction.prototype=objA

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_1)===UserDefinedFunction.prototype)  //Displays false. The object referenced by UserDefinedFunction.prototype has changed

//The internal reference does not change
alert(newObj_1.constructor) // This shall still Display function UserDefinedFunction

alert(newObj_1.TestProperty) //This shall still Display "test" 

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_1).TestProperty) //This shall still Display "test"


//Create another object of type UserDefinedFunction
var newObj_2= new UserDefinedFunction();

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_2)===objA) //Displays true.

alert(newObj_2.constructor) //Displays function Array()

alert(newObj_2.property1) //Displays "Property1"

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_2).property1) //Displays "Property1"

//Create a new property in objA
objA.property2="property2"

alert(objA.property2) //Displays "Property2"

alert(UserDefinedFunction.prototype.property2) //Displays "Property2"

alert(newObj_2.property2) // Displays Property2

alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(newObj_2).property2) //Displays  "Property2"

The prototype chain of every object ultimately traces back to Object.prototype (which itself does not have any prototype object) . Following code can be used for tracing the prototype chain of an object

var o=Starting object;

do {
    alert(o + "\n" + Object.getOwnPropertyNames(o))

}while(o=Object.getPrototypeOf(o))

The prototype chain for various objects work out as follows.

  • Every Function object (including built in Function object)-> Function.prototype -> Object.prototype -> null
  • Simple Objects (created By new Object() or {} including built in Math object)-> Object.prototype -> null
  • Object created with new or Object.create -> One or More prototype chains -> Object.prototype -> null

For creating an object without any prototype use the following:

var o=Object.create(null)
alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(o)) //Displays null

One might think that setting the prototype property of the Constructor to null shall create an object with a null prototype. However in such cases the newly created object's prototype is set to Object.prototype and its constructor is set to function Object. This is demonstrated by the following code

function UserDefinedFunction(){}
UserDefinedFunction.prototype=null// Can be set to any non object value (number,string,undefined etc.)

var o=new UserDefinedFunction()
alert(Object.getPrototypeOf(o)==Object.prototype)   //Displays true
alert(o.constructor)    //Displays Function Object

Following in the summary of this article

  • There are two types of objects Function types and Non Function types
  • Only Function type objects can create a new object using the operator new. The objects thus created are Non Function type objects. The Non Function type objects cannot further create an object using operator new.

  • All Function type objects by default have a "prototype" property. This "prototype" property references an object that has a "constructor" property that by default references the Function type object itself.

  • All objects (Function type and Non Function type) have a "constructor" property that by default references the Function type object/Constructor that created it.

  • Every object that gets created internally references the object referenced by "prototype" property of the Constructor that created it. This object is known as the created object's prototype (which is different from Function type objects "prototype" property which it references) . This way the created object can directly access the methods and properties defined in object referenced by the Constructor's "prototype" property (at the time of object creation).

  • An object's prototype (and hence its inherited property names) can be retrieved using the Object.getPrototypeOf() method. In fact this method can be used for navigating the entire prototype chain of the object.

  • The prototype chain of every object ultimately traces back to Object.prototype (Unless the object is created using Object.create(null) in which case the object has no prototype).

  • typeof(new Array())==='object' is by design of language and not a mistake as pointed by Douglas Crockford

  • Setting the prototype property of the Constructor to null(or undefined,number,true,false,string) shall not create an object with a null prototype. In such cases the newly created object's prototype is set to Object.prototype and its constructor is set to function Object.

Hope this helps.

fareed namrouti replied
this is sooooo deeep Amazing !;
Thalaivar answered

The concept of prototypal inheritance is one of the most complicated for many developers. Let's try to understand the root of problem to understand prototypal inheritance better. Let's start with a plain function.

enter image description here

If we use a new operator on the Tree function, we call it as a constructor function.

enter image description here

Every JavaScript function has a prototype. When you log the Tree.prototype, you get...

enter image description here

If you look at the above console.log() output, you could a see a constructor property on Tree.prototype and a __proto__ property too. The __proto__ represents the prototype that this function is based off, and since this is just a plain JavaScript function with no inheritance set up yet, it refers to the Object prototype which is something just built in to JavaScript...

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Object/prototype

This has things like .toString, .toValue, .hasOwnProperty etc...

__proto__ which was brought my mozilla is deprecated and is replaced by Object.getPrototypeOf method to get the object's prototype.

enter image description here

Object.getPrototypeOf(Tree.prototype); // Object {} 

Let's add a method to our Tree prototype.

enter image description here

We have modified the Root and added a function branch to it.

enter image description here

That means when you create an instance of Tree, you can call it's branch method.

enter image description here

We can also add primitives or objects to our Prototype.

enter image description here

Let's add a child-tree to our Tree.

enter image description here

Here the Child inherits its prototype from Tree, what we are doing here is using Object.create() method to create a new object based off what you pass, here it is Tree.prototype. In this case what we're doing is setting the prototype of Child to a new object that looks identical to the Tree prototype. Next we are setting the Child's constructor to Child, if we don't it would point to Tree().

enter image description here

Child now has its own prototype, its __proto__ points to Tree and Tree's prototype points to base Object.

Child  
|
 \
  \
   Tree.prototype
   - branch
   |
   |
    \
     \
      Object.prototype
      -toString
      -valueOf
      -etc., etc.

Now you create an instance of Child and call branch which is originally available in Tree. We haven't actually defined our branch on the Child prototype. BUT, in the Root prototype which Child inherits from.

enter image description here

In JS everything is not an object, everything can act like an object.

Javascript has primitives like strings, number, booleans, undefined, null. They are not object(i.e reference types), but certainly can act like an object. Let's look at an example here.

enter image description here

In the first line of this listing, a primitive string value is assigned to name. The second line treats name like an object and calls charAt(0) using dot notation.

This is what happens behind the scenes: // what the JavaScript engine does

enter image description here

The String object exists only for one statement before it’s destroyed (a process called autoboxing). Let's again get back to our prototypal inheritance.

  • Javascript supports inheritance via delegation based on prototypes.
  • Each Function has a prototype property, which refers to another object.
  • properties/functions are looked from the object itself or via prototype chain if it does not exist

A prototype in JS is an object which yields you to the parent of another object. [ie.. delegation] Delegation means that if you are unable to do something, you’ll tell someone else to do it for you.

enter image description here

https://jsfiddle.net/say0tzpL/1/

If you look up the above fiddle, dog has access to toString method, but its not available in it, but available via the prototype chain which delegates to Object.prototype

enter image description here

If you look at the below one, we are trying to access the call method which is available in every function.

enter image description here

https://jsfiddle.net/rknffckc/

If you look up the above fiddle, Profile Function has access to call method, but its not available in it, but available via the prototype chain which delegates to Function.prototype

enter image description here

Note: prototype is a property of the function constructor, whereas __proto__ is a property of the objects constructed from the function constructor. Every function comes with a prototype property whose value is an empty object. When we create an instance of the function, we get an internal property [[Prototype]] or __proto__ whose reference is the prototype of the Function constructor.

enter image description here

The above diagram looks bit complicated, but brings out the whole picture on how prototype chaining works. Let's walk through this slowly:

There are two instance b1 and b2, whose constructor is Bar and parent is Foo and has two methods from prototype chain identify and speak via Bar and Foo

enter image description here

https://jsfiddle.net/kbp7jr7n/

If you look up the code above, we have Foo constructor who has the method identify() and Bar constructor which has speak method. We create two Bar instance b1 and b2 whose parent type is Foo. Now while calling speak method of Bar, we are able to identify the who is calling the speak via prototype chain.

enter image description here

Bar now has all the methods of Foo which are defined in its prototype. Let's dig further in understanding the Object.prototype and Function.prototype and how they are related. If you look up the constructor of Foo, Bar and Object are Function constructor.

enter image description here

The prototype of Bar is Foo, prototype of Foo is Object and if you look closely the prototype of Foo is related to Object.prototype.

enter image description here

Before we close this down, let's just wrap with a small piece of code here to summarize everything above. We are using instanceof operator here to check whether an object has in its prototype chain the prototype property of a constructor which below summarizes the entire big diagram.

enter image description here

I hope this add's some information, I know this kinda could be big to grasp... in simple words its it's just objects linked to objects!!!!

dirkgently answered

what is the exact purpose of this ".prototype" property?

The interface to standard classes become extensible. For example, you are using the Array class and you also need to add a custom serializer for all your array objects. Would you spend time coding up a subclass, or use composition or ... The prototype property solves this by letting the users control the exact set of members/methods available to a class.

Think of prototypes as an extra vtable-pointer. When some members are missing from the original class, the prototype is looked up at runtime.

Bad answered

The Definitive Guide to Object-Oriented JavaScript - a very concise and clear ~30min video explanation of the asked question (Prototypal Inheritance topic begins from 5:45, although I'd rather listen to the whole video). The author of this video also made JavaScript object visualizer website http://www.objectplayground.com/.enter image description here enter image description here

luke_aus replied
great video reference;
trincot answered

It may help to categorise prototype chains into two categories.

Consider the constructor:

 function Person() {}

The value of Object.getPrototypeOf(Person) is a function. In fact, it is Function.prototype. Since Person was created as a function, it shares the same prototype function object that all functions have. It is the same as Person.__proto__, but that property should not be used. Anyway, with Object.getPrototypeOf(Person) you effectively walk up the ladder of what is called the prototype chain.

The chain in upward direction looks like this:

    PersonFunction.prototypeObject.prototype (end point)

Important is that this prototype chain has little to do with the objects that Person can construct. Those constructed objects have their own prototype chain, and this chain can potentially have no close ancestor in common with the one mentioned above.

Take for example this object:

var p = new Person();

p has no direct prototype-chain relationship with Person. Their relationship is a different one. The object p has its own prototype chain. Using Object.getPrototypeOf, you'll find the chain is as follows:

    pPerson.prototypeObject.prototype (end point)

There is no function object in this chain (although that could be).

So Person seems related to two kinds of chains, which live their own lives. To "jump" from one chain to the other, you use:

  1. .prototype: jump from the constructor's chain to the created-object's chain. This property is thus only defined for function objects (as new can only be used on functions).

  2. .constructor: jump from the created-object's chain to the constructor's chain.

Here is a visual presentation of the two prototype chains involved, represented as columns:

enter image description here

To summarise:

The prototype property gives no information of the subject's prototype chain, but of objects created by the subject.

It is no surprise that the name of the property prototype can lead to confusion. It would maybe have been clearer if this property had been named prototypeOfConstructedInstances or something along that line.

You can jump back and forth between the two prototype chains:

Person.prototype.constructor === Person

This symmetry can be broken by explicitly assigning a different object to the prototype property (more about that later).

Create one Function, Get Two Objects

Person.prototype is an object that was created at the same time the function Person was created. It has Person as constructor, even though that constructor did not actually execute yet. So two objects are created at the same time:

  1. The function Person itself
  2. The object that will act as prototype when the function is called as a constructor

Both are objects, but they have different roles: the function object constructs, while the other object represents the prototype of any object that function will construct. The prototype object will become the parent of the constructed object in its prototype chain.

Since a function is also an object, it also has its own parent in its own prototype chain, but recall that these two chains are about different things.

Here are some equalities that could help grasp the issue -- all of these print true:

function Person() {};

// This is prototype chain info for the constructor (the function object):
console.log(Object.getPrototypeOf(Person) === Function.prototype);
// Step further up in the same hierarchy:
console.log(Object.getPrototypeOf(Function.prototype) === Object.prototype);
console.log(Object.getPrototypeOf(Object.prototype) === null);
console.log(Person.__proto__ === Function.prototype);
// Here we swap lanes, and look at the constructor of the constructor
console.log(Person.constructor === Function);
console.log(Person instanceof Function);

// Person.prototype was created by Person (at the time of its creation)
// Here we swap lanes back and forth:
console.log(Person.prototype.constructor === Person);
// Although it is not an instance of it:
console.log(!(Person.prototype instanceof Person));
// Instances are objects created by the constructor:
var p = new Person();
// Similarly to what was shown for the constructor, here we have
// the same for the object created by the constructor:
console.log(Object.getPrototypeOf(p) === Person.prototype);
console.log(p.__proto__ === Person.prototype);
// Here we swap lanes, and look at the constructor
console.log(p.constructor === Person);
console.log(p instanceof Person);

Adding levels to the prototype chain

Although a prototype object is created when you create a constructor function, you can ignore that object, and assign another object that should be used as prototype for any subsequent instances created by that constructor.

For instance:

function Thief() { }
var p = new Person();
Thief.prototype = p; // this determines the prototype for any new Thief objects:
var t = new Thief();

Now the prototype chain of t is one step longer than that of p:

    tpPerson.prototypeObject.prototype (end point)

The other prototype chain is not longer: Thief and Person are siblings sharing the same parent in their prototype chain:

    Person}
    Thief  } → Function.prototypeObject.prototype (end point)

The earlier presented graphic can then be extended to this (the original Thief.prototype is left out):

enter image description here

The blue lines represent prototype chains, the other coloured lines represent other relationships:

  • between an object and its constructor
  • between a constructor and the prototype object that will be used for constructing objects
B M answered

I found it helpful to explain the "prototype chain" as recursive convention when obj_n.prop_X is being referenced:

if obj_n.prop_X doesn't exist, check obj_n+1.prop_X where obj_n+1 = obj_n.[[prototype]]

If the prop_X is finally found in the k-th prototype object then

obj_1.prop_X = obj_1.[[prototype]].[[prototype]]..(k-times)..[[prototype]].prop_X

You can find a graph of the relation of Javascript objects by their properties here:

js objects graph

http://jsobjects.org

Tom answered

When a constructor creates an object, that object implicitly references the constructor’s “prototype” property for the purpose of resolving property references. The constructor’s “prototype” property can be referenced by the program expression constructor.prototype, and properties added to an object’s prototype are shared, through inheritance, by all objects sharing the prototype.

Aravind answered

Let me tell you my understanding of prototypes. I am not going to compare the inheritance here with other languages. I wish people would stop comparing languages, and just understand the language as itself. Understanding prototypes and prototypal inheritance is so simple, as I will show you below.

Prototype is like a model, based on which you create a product. The crucial point to understand is that when you create an object using another object as it's prototype, the link between the prototype and the product is ever-lasting. For instance:

var model = {x:2};
var product = Object.create(model);
model.y = 5;
product.y
=>5

Every object contains an internal property called the [[prototype]], which can be accessed by the Object.getPrototypeOf() function. Object.create(model) creates a new object and sets it's [[prototype]] property to the object model. Hence when you do Object.getPrototypeOf(product), you will get the object model.

Properties in the product are handled in the following way:

  • When a property is accessed to just read it's value, its looked up in the scope chain. The search for the variable starts from the product upwards to it's prototype. If such a variable is found in the search, the search is stopped right there, and the value is returned. If such a variable cannot be found in the scope chain, undefined is returned.
  • When a property is written(altered), then the property is always written on the product object. If the product does not have such a property already, it is implicitly created and written.

Such a linking of objects using the prototype property is called prototypal inheritance. There, it is so simple, agree?

HMR replied
Not always written on product on assignment. You're not making it very clear that instance specific members have to be initialized and shared members can go on the prototype. Especially when you have instance specific mutable members: stackoverflow.com/questions/16063394/…;
Aravind replied
HMR: In your example in your answer, the ben.food.push("Hamburger"); line alters the prototype object's property due to the following: 1.) First ben.food is looked up, and any lookup action will simply lookup the scope chain. 2.) The push function of that ben.food object is executed. By writing mode in my answer, I mean when you explicitly set a value to it, as in: ben.food = ['Idly']; This will always create a new property(if not already there) on the product object, and then assign the value to it.;
Aravind replied
HMR: Thank for your comment, it made me think and test my understanding.;
HMR replied
When re assigning ben.food it'll shadow the food member unless food is created using Object.defineProperty, Object.defineProperties or Object.create with second argument (so not always). You can even change prototype with (what looks like) a re assignment when you created a getter setter. When it comes to patterns of inheritance I understand the constructor function is hard to understand and has some major problems but it is good if you understand it. Inheritance in JavaScript doesn't begin and end with setting a prototype, initializes (constructors) are to be (re) used as well.;
HMR replied
Your answer is good in explaining prototype but could be mis interpreted by over simplifying inheritance in JavaScript and instance specific members. A lot of questions have been asked why mutating a prototype member on an instance affects other instances.;
rus1 answered

Another attempt to explain JavaScript prototype-based inheritance with better pictures

Simple objects inheritanse

John Slegers answered

Consider the following keyValueStore object :

var keyValueStore = (function() {
    var count = 0;
    var kvs = function() {
        count++;
        this.data = {};
        this.get = function(key) { return this.data[key]; };
        this.set = function(key, value) { this.data[key] = value; };
        this.delete = function(key) { delete this.data[key]; };
        this.getLength = function() {
            var l = 0;
            for (p in this.data) l++;
            return l;
        }
    };

    return  { // Singleton public properties
        'create' : function() { return new kvs(); },
        'count' : function() { return count; }
    };
})();

I can create a new instance of this object by doing this :

kvs = keyValueStore.create();

Each instance of this object would have the following public properties :

  • data
  • get
  • set
  • delete
  • getLength

Now, suppose we create 100 instances of this keyValueStore object. Even though get, set, delete, getLength will do the exact same thing for each of these 100 instances, every instance has its own copy of this function.

Now, imagine if you could have just a single get, set, delete and getLength copy, and each instance would reference that same function. This would be better for performance and require less memory.

That's where prototypes come in. A prototype is a "blueprint" of properties that is inherited but not copied by instances. So this means that it exists only once in memory for all instances of an object and is shared by all of those instances.

Now, consider the keyValueStore object again. I could rewrite it like this :

var keyValueStore = (function() {
    var count = 0;
    var kvs = function() {
        count++;
        this.data = {};
    };

    kvs.prototype = {
        'get' : function(key) { return this.data[key]; },
        'set' : function(key, value) { this.data[key] = value; },
        'delete' : function(key) { delete this.data[key]; },
        'getLength' : function() {
            var l = 0;
            for (p in this.data) l++;
            return l;
        }
    };

    return  {
        'create' : function() { return new kvs(); },
        'count' : function() { return count; }
    };
})();

This does EXACTLY the same as the previous version of the keyValueStore object, except that all of its methods are now put in a prototype. What this means, is that all of the 100 instances now share these four methods instead of each having their own copy.

Louis Moore answered

I always like analogies when it comes to understand this type of stuff. 'Prototypal inheritance' is pretty confusing in comparison to class bass inheritance in my opinion, even though prototypes are much simpler paradigm. In fact there really is no inheritance, so the name in and of itself misleading, it's more like prototypal delegation.

Imagine this ....

You're in high-school, and you're in class and have a test that's due today, but you don't have a pen to complete it. Ohshi-

You have a best friend, Finnius Mcdinglebutt who might possibly have a pen? You ask, and he looks on his desk unsuccessfully, but instead of saying "Man, I don't have a pen", he's a nice friend he checks with his other friend Derp Derpington if he has a pen. Derp does have a pen and passes it back to Finnius, who passes it over to you to complete your test. Derp has entrusted the pen to Finnius, who has delegated the pen to you for use.

This, is essentially how prototypes work in a nutshell.

:~]